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1.7. Into how many kingdomes the Iſle of Bri|taine hath bene deuided at once in olde time. Cap. 6.

Into how many kingdomes the Iſle of Bri|taine hath bene deuided at once in olde time. Cap. 6.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Britaine at the firſt one entier kingdome.IT is not to be doubted, but that at the firſt the whole Iſlande was ruled by one onely prince, and ſo continued from time to time, vntill ciuile diſcorde, grounded vpon ambi|tions deſire to reigne, cauſed the ſame to be gouerned by diuers. And this I meane ſo wel of the time before the comming of Brute, as after the extinction of his whole race and po|ſterity. Howbeit as it is incerteine, into how many regions it was ſeuered after the firſt particion, ſo it is moſt ſure that this latter diſturbed eſtate of regiment, continued in the ſame, not onely vntill the time of Caeſar, but alſo in maner vnto the dayes of Lucius, with whome the whole race of the Britons had an ende, and the Romaynes full poſſeſſiõ of this Iſlande, who gouerned it by Legates after the maner of a prouince. It ſhould ſeme alſo yt within a whyle after the time of Dun|wallon (who rather brought thoſe 4. Prin|ces that vſurped in his tyme to obedience, then extinguiſhed their titles, and ſuch parti|tion as they had made of the Iſlande among thẽſelues) eche great citie had hir fréedome and ſeuerall kinde of regiment, proper vnto hir ſelfe, beſide a large circuite of the country appertinent vnto the ſame, wherin were ſun|drye other cities alſo of leſſe name, which ought homage & all ſubiection vnto the grea|ter ſorte. And to ſay truth hereof, it came to paſſe, that eache region, whereinto this I|ſlande was than deuided, tooke his name of ſome one of theſe as many appeare by that of the Trinobantes, which was ſo called of Trinobantum the chiefe citie of that portion, whoſe Territories, contayned all Eſſex, Middleſex, and part of Hertforde ſhire, euen as the iuriſdictiõ of the Biſhop of London is now extẽded, for the ouerſight of ſuch things as belong vnto the Church. Eche of the go|uernours alſo of theſe regions, called them|ſelues kings, and therevnto eyther of them dayly made warre vpon other, for the inlar|ging of their limites. But foraſmuch as I am not able to ſaye howe many dyd chalenge this authoritie at once, and howe long they reigned ouer their ſeuerall portions, I will paſſe ouer theſe auncient times, and come néerer vnto our owne, I meane the 600. yere of Chriſt, wherof we haue more certayne no|tice, & at which ſeaſon there is euident proofe, that there were 12. or 13. kinges reigning in this Iſlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 We finde therefore for the firſt,Wales d [...]+uided [...] thrée king+domes. howe that Wales had hir thrée ſeuerall kingdomes, al|though that portion of the Iſlande extended in thoſe dayes no farder thẽ about 200. miles in length, & one hundred in bredth, and was cut from Lhoegres by the riuers Sauerne & Dée, of which two ſtreames this doth fall in|to the Iriſh ſea at Cheſter, the other into the mayne Oceane, betwixt Somerſetſhire and Southwales, as their ſeuerall courſes doe witneſſe more at large.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the beginning it was deuided into two kingdomes onely, that is to ſay, Venedotia, EEBO page image 6 Gwinhed, Gwinhed. and Demetia, for which we now vſe moſt commonlye the names of South and North Wales, but in proceſſe of tyme a thirde ſprange vp in the verye middeſt be|twéene them both, which from thenceforth was called Powyſy, as ſhalbe ſhewed here|after.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The firſt of theſe thrée, being called as I ſayd Northwales or Venedotia (or as Paulus, Venedotia. Iouius ſaith Malfabrene, for he deuideth wales alſo into thrée regions, of whiche he calleth ye firſt Dumbera, the ſeconde Berfrona, & the third Malfabrene) lyeth directly ouer againſt ye Iſle of Angleſey.Angleſey. It containeth 4. regions, of which the ſayde Iſland is the firſt, & wher|of in the chapter inſuing I wil intreate more at large.Arfon. The ſeconde is called Arfon, and ſi|tuate betwéene two ryuers, the Segwy & the Conwy:Merio|neth. The thirde is Merioneth, & as it is ſeuered from Arfon by the Conwy, ſo is it ſe|parated from Tegenia, (otherwyſe called Stradcluyd & Igenia the fourth regiõ) by the riuer Cluda.Strad|cluyd or Tegenia. Finally the limits alſo of thys latter: are extended alſo, euen vnto the Dée it ſelfe, and of theſe 4. Regions, conſiſteth the kingdome of Venedotia, wherof in times paſt the region of the Canges was not the ſmal|leſt portion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Powiſy.The kingdome of Powiſy, laſt of all erec|ted, as I ſayde, hath on the north ſide Gwin|hed on the Eaſt (from Cheſter to Hereforde, or rather the Deane foreſt) Englande: on the ſouth and weſt the ryuer Wy, and very highe hilles, whereby it is notablye ſeuered from Southwales, the chiefe citie thereof being Shropſhyre, that nowe is inhabited with méere Engliſh, and where, in olde time the kinges of Powyſy dyd dwell and holde their pallaces. Vpon the limits of this king|dome, and not farre from Holt caſtell, vpon eache ſide of the riuer, as the chanell nowe runneth, ſtoode ſometime the famous Mona|ſtery of Bãgor,Bangor. whyleſt the abated glory of the Britons, yet remayned vnextinguiſhed, & herin were 2100. monkes, of which, the lear|ned ſort dyd preache the Goſpell, and the vn|learned laboured with their hands, therby to mainteyne themſelues, and to ſuſtaine their preachers. This Region was in lyke ſort de|uided afterward in twaine, of which, the one was called Mailor or Mailroſſe, the other re|tayned ſtill hir olde denomination, & of theſe the firſt lay by ſouth, and the latter by north of the Sauerne, whereof let this ſuffice, ſith mine intent is not as nowe to make any pre|ciſe deſcriptiõ, of the particulars of Wales, but onely to ſhewe, howe thoſe regions laye, which ſometime were knowen to be gouer|ned in that countrey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The third kingdome is Demetia, Demetia. or South|wales, ſometime knowen for the region of the Syllures, wherevnto I alſo am perſwa|ded, that the Ordolukes lay in the Eaſt part thereof, and extended their region, euen vnto the Sauerne: but howſoeuer that matter fal|leth out, Demetia hath the Sauerne on hir ſouth, the Iriſh ſea on hir weſt partes, on the eaſt the Sauerne only, and by North the land of Powyſy, whereof I ſpake of late.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of this region alſo Caermarden, which the olde writers call Maridunum, was the chiefe pallace, vntill at the laſt thorowe forren and ciuill inuaſions of enimies, that the Princes thereof were conſtrayned to remooue theyr courts to Dinefar (which is in Cantermawr, and ſituate neuertheleſſe vppon the ſame ry|uer Tewye whereon Cairmarden ſtand|eth) where it is farre better defended with high hilles, thicke wooddes, craggy rockes, and déepe mariſes. In this region alſo lyeth Pembroke ſhyre, whoſe fawcons haue bene in olde time very much regarded, and there in likewyſe is Milforde hauen, whereof the Welch wyfards doe dreame ſtraunge toyes, which they beléeue, ſhall one daye come to paſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 That Scotlande had in theſe dayes two Kingdomes,Pictland. Scotland. Pictes. Scottes. (beſides that of the Orchades) wherof the one conſiſted of the Pictes, & was called Pightland or Pictlande, the other of the Scottiſh race, & named Scotland: I hope no wiſe man will readily denie. The whole regiõ or portion of the Iſle beyonde the Scot|tiſh ſea alſo was ſo diuided that ye Pictes lay on the Eaſt ſide, and the Scots, on the Weſt, eche of them being ſeuered from other, eyther by huge hilles or great lakes and riuers, that ran out of the South into the north betwéene them: Wherefore the caſe being ſo playne, I will ſay no more of theſe twoo but procéede in order wyth the rehearſall of the reſt of the particular kingdoms of this our ſouth part of ye Ile, limiting out ye ſame by ſhyres as they now lye, ſo nere as I cã, for otherwiſe it ſhal|be impoſſible for me to leaue certaine notice of the likelieſt quantities of theſe their ſeue|rall portions.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The firſt of theſe kingdomes therfore was begonne in Kent by Henghiſt in the 456.Kẽt Hen|ghiſt. of Chriſt, and thereof called the kingdome of Kent: and as the limites thereof extended it ſelf no farther then the ſayde countie (ye chiefe Citie whereof was Dorobernia or Canter|bury) ſo it endured well nere by the ſpace of 400. yeares, before it was made an Earle|dome, and vnited by Inas vnto that of the Weſt Saxons, Athelſtane his ſonne, being ye firſt Earle or heretoche of the ſame. Maiſter EEBO page image 15 Lambert in his hyſtorie of Kent doth gather, by very probable coniectures, that this part of the Iſlande was firſt inhabited, by Samo|thes, and afterwarde by Albion: but howſoe|uer that caſe ſtandeth, ſure it is that it hath bene the onely doore, whereby the Romaines and Saxons made their entrie vnto the con|queſt of the region. And as this cannot be denyed, ſo it was the onelye place by which the knowledge of Chriſt was firſt brought ouer vnto vs, whereby we became partakers of ſaluation, and from the darkneſſe of miſty errour, true conuerts vnto the light, & bright beames of the ſhining truth, to our eternall benefit, and endleſſe comforts hereafter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Southſax. Ella.The ſecond Kingdome conteined only Suſ|ſex & a part of Surrey, which Ella the Saxon firſt helde: who alſo erected his chiefe pallace at Chicheſter, whẽ he had deſtroied Andredſ|walde in the 492. of Chriſt, and after it had continued by the ſpace of 232. yeares, it ceaſed being the very beaſt Kingdome of all the reſt, which were founded in this yle after the com|ming of the Saxons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Eſtſax. Erken|w [...]jn.The third regiment was of the Eaſt Sax|ons, or Trinobãtes. This kingdome began vn|der Erkenwijne, whoſe chiefe ſeate was in Londõ (or Colcheſter) & cõteined whole Eſſex, & part of Herfordſhyre. It indured alſo much about the pricke of 303. yeres, & was diuided frõ that of the Eaſt angles onely by the riuer Stour, as Houeden & other doe report, & ſo it continueth ſeperated from Suffolke euen vnto our times, although the ſayde riuer be growne very ſmall, and not of ſuch greatnes as it hath bene in times paſt, by reaſon that our Country men make ſmall accompt of ri|uers, thinking carriage made by horſe & cart to be the leſſe chargeable waye. But herein how far they are deceyued, I will elſewhere make manifeſt declaration.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Weſtſax.The fourth kingdome was of ye Weſt Sax|ons, and ſo called bycauſe it lay in the Weſt part of the realme, as that of Eſſex did in the Eaſt, of Suſſex and South. It began in the yeare of grace 549.Cerdijc. vnder Cerdijc, & indured vntil the comming of ye Normanes, including Willſhyre, Barkeſhyre, Dorſet, Southamp|ton, Sũmerſetſhyre Gloſterſhyre, ſome part of Deuonſhyre (which the Brytons occupied not) Cornewal and the reſt of Surrey, as the beſt authours do ſet downe. The chiefe Citie of this Kingdome alſo was Wincheſter, ex|cept my memory doe fayle me.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Br [...]nnicia, alias Nor|thumber|land, Ida.The fift Kingdome beganne vnder Ida, in the 548. of Chriſt being called now Northũ|berland becauſe it laye by North of the riuer Humber, it conteined all that region which as it ſhoulde ſéeme, was in time paſt eyther wholly apperteining to ye Brigants, or where|of of the ſayde Brigants, did poſſeſſe the greater part. The chiefe Citie of the ſame in like ma|ner was Yorke, as Leyland and other doe ſet downe, who adde thereto that it extended frõ the humber vnto the Scottiſh ſea.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Afterwarde in the yeare of grace 560.Deira, Ella. it was parted in twaine, vnder Adda, that yéel|ded vp all hys portion, which laye betwéene humber and the Line vnto his Brother Ella (according to their Fathers appointment) who called it Deira, or Southumberlande, but reteyning the reſt ſtil vnto his owne vſe, he diminiſhed not his title, but wrote himſelf as before king of al Northumberland. How|beit after 91. yeres, it was reunited againe, & ſo continued vntill Alfrede vnited the whole to his kingdome, in the 331. after Ida, or 878. after the birth of Ieſus Chriſt our Sauiour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The 7. kingdome,Eaſtangle Offa, a [...] offelings. called of the Eaſtangles began at Norwitch in the 561. after Chriſt, vnder Offa, of whom they were lõg time af|ter called Offelings. This included all Nor|folke, Suffolke, Cãbridgeſhyre, & Ely, & cõ|tinuing 228. yeres it flouriſhed only 35. yeres in perfite eſtate of Liberte, the reaſt being conſumed vnder the trybute and vaſſallage of the merciãs, who had ye ſouereigntye ther|of, & helde it with great honour. Some take this region to be all one with that of the Ice|nes, but as yet for my part I cannot yéelde to their aſſertions, I meane it of Lelande, him|ſelfe, whoſe helpe I vſe altogither in theſe collections, albeit in this behalfe I am not re|ſolued, that he doth iudge aright.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The 8. and laſt was that of Mercia,Mertia. Creodda. which indured 291. yeares, and for greatneſſe of cir|cuit, excéeded all the reaſt. It tooke the name eyther of Mearc the Saxon word, becauſe the limits of moſt of the other kingdomes abut|ted vpõ the ſame, or elſe for that the lawes of Mercia, were firſt vſed in that part of the I|lande. But as the later is but a méere coniec|ture of ſome, ſo it began vnder Creodda, in ye 585. and indured well nere 300. yeres, before it was vnited to that of the Weſt Saxons by Alfrede, then reigning in the kingdome. Be|fore him the Danes had gotten holde thereof, and placed one Ceolulphe an Ideote in the ſame, but as he was ſone reiected for his folly, ſo it was not long after ere the ſayde Alfrede annexed it to his kingdome.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The limites of the Mertian dominiõs,Limits o [...] Mercia. con|teined Lincolne, Northamptõ, Cheſter, Dar|by, Nottingham, Stafford, Huntington Rut|lande, Oxforde, Buckingham, Worceſter, Bedforde ſhyres, and the greateſt part of Shropſhyre (which the Welch occupied not) Lancaſter, Gloceſter, Hereford (alias Hurch|forde) EEBO page image 7 Warwijc and Hertforde ſhyres, the reſt of whoſe territories were holden by ſuch princes of other kingdomes thorow force [...] bordered vpõ the ſame. And thus much haue I thought good to leaue in memorye of the a|foreſaid kingdomes, not omitting in ye meane time ſomewhat here to remember of the di|uiſion of the Iſland alſo into Prouinces, as the Romaines ſeuered it whiles they remay|ned in theſe parts. Which being done, I hope that I haue fullye diſcharged whatſoeuer is promiſed in the title of this Chapter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Romaines therefore hauing obteined the poſſeſſion of this Iſland, deuided the ſame at ye laſt into fiue Prouinces. The firſt wher|of was named Britãnia prima, [...]itannia [...]ma. & conteined the eaſt part of England (as ſome doe gather) frõ ye Trent vnto ye Twede. The ſecond was cal|led Valentia, [...]lentia. & included the Weſt ſide as they note it, frõ Lirpole vnto Cokermouth. The thirde hight Britannia ſecunda, [...]itannia [...]cunda. and was that portion of the Ile which laye Southwardes, betwéene the Trent and the Thames. The fourth was ſurnamed Flauia Ceſarienſis: [...]auia Ce| [...]ienſis. and contayned all the countrey which remayned betwéene Douer & the Sauerne, I meane by ſouth of the Thames, and wherevnto in lyke ſort, Cornewall and Wales were orderly aſ|ſigned. The fift and laſt part was then named Maxima Ceſarienſis, [...]axima [...]eſarien| [...]. now Scotland. The moſt barren of all the reaſt, & yet not vnſought out of the Romaines, bicauſe of the great plentie of fiſhe and foule, fine Alabaſtar and harde Marble, that are ingendred and to be had in the ſame, for furniture of houſholde and curious buylding, wherein they much deli|ted.

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